The Lighthouse Tower:
The Latin motto etched on the door glass at the entry to the tower means Once Perilous, Now Safe.
The tower stands 27m high and there are 96 stairs to the top. The stairs are in 4 stages (the first 3 stages are the same grade and the last stage is a bit steeper and narrower). The building is made of pre-cast concrete blocks made on-site and local aggregate. The ground floor is tiled and there is a bluestone balcony and gunmetal railings.
Frenel’s late 17th century optics prism design for the light has 700 lens. Each side of the bi-valve lens prism concentrates the light source received over its whole area into a single beam of great intensity. A central tube and counterweights drove the grandfather clock-type mechanism which originally rotated the optics prism. The drive is currently provided by a .3 amp electric motor.
On the ground floor there is an entry hallway and two rooms. One room was the report room (later radio room) where the light keepers on duty did their administrative work, kept records and filled the logbooks with their daily activities and the weather reports. Norah Head was the mother station to Montague Island (in the south) and South Solitary Island (in the North).
The second room is now used as the generator and electrical control room. This room houses a diesel fuel tank on the wall which fuels the diesel powered generator which is electronically automated to start in times of mains electricity failure. This is to ensure that the light beam is continuously sending its signal. The room houses all the electronic sensor controls and backup batteries. The light sensors will start the light shining on dark days. A small workshop and bench area are also located here. For emergency lighting in the early days a spare mantle holder was provided.
On the outside of the building (around to one side) there is a “ghost door”. This door was planned but never completed, probably “southerly busters” would have made its use impractical.
Flag Locker Building:
This building was used to house more than 40 flags for communication between the passing ships and the Lighthouse during the day. The flags were the international maritime code flags used worldwide for ship to shore and ship to ship communications before radio and other more modern telecommunications were introduced.
There was a flag for each letter of the alphabet and for each numeral, plus each flag used by itself had a particular meaning, such as Man Overboard or I need a Pilot. A combination of two flags increased the scope of communications, but no more than two were used in this manner.
These flags were (and still are) internationally recognised and accepted by ships of all countries. Information was passed from ships to the Lighthouse regarding sick sailors or passengers, other emergencies and requests for help. The flags also gave vital information to ships at sea, such as weather forecasts and storm and wind warnings and warned of other hazards such as reefs.
The original Weather Station was located 100m further up the hill and Norah Head Lighthouse was the “mother station” where reports from South Solitary Island off Coffs Harbour to the north and Montague Island in the South were collated. These reports were then sent to the Sydney Bureau. The current weather station electronically transmits relevant information directly to the Weather Bureau in Sydney.
Fresh Water Tanks:
There are underground water tanks on the grounds and also, beneath the tower, a condensation water tank which has been sealed off.
On the rock platform immediately in front of the headland on which the Lighthouse is located there is a unique rock platform which was formed in the Triassic to Permian era around 180 – 280 million years ago. From the top of the Lighthouse Tower a volcanic intrusion can be seen. This volcanic intrusion is channel made of darker rock which runs for some distance from one side to the other side of the rock platform. Waves have quarried out this channel because the basalt lava flow (in the channel) was softer than the surrounding granite. The lava came from an ancient volcano – probably Mt. Warrowolong, the large flat topped mountain to the west of Norah Head.